Educational Psychology Learner Differences and Learner Needs

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Disability
The inability to do something specific, such as walk or hear.
Handicap
A disadvantage in a particular situation, sometimes caused by a disability.
Intelligence
Ability or abilities to acquire and use knowledge for solving problems and adapting to the new world.
General Intelligence
A general factor in cognitive ability that is related in varying degrees to performance on all mental tests.
Fluid Intelligence
Mental efficiency, nonverbal abilities grounded in brain development.
Crystallized Intelligence
Ability to apply culturally approved problem-solving methods.
Theory of Multiple Intelligences
In Gardner’s theory of intelligence, a person’s eight separate abilities: logical-mathmatical, linguistic, musical, spatial, bodily kinesthetic, interpersonal, interpersonal, and naturalistic.
Triarchic Theory o Successful Intelligence
A three-part description of the mental abilities (thinking processes, coping with new experiences, and adapting to context) that lead to more or less intelligent behavior.
Insight
The ability to deal effectively with novel situations.
Automatically
The result of learning to perform a behavior or thinking process so thoroughly that the performance is automatic and does not require effort.
Mental Age
In intelligence testing, a performance that represents average abilities for that age group.
Intelligence Quotient (IQ)
Score comparing mental and chronological ages.
Deviation IQ
Score based on statistical comparison of an individual’s performance with the average performance of others in that age group.
Flynn Effect
Because of better health, smaller families, increased complexity in the environment, and more and better schooling, IQ test scores are steadily rising.
Learning Styles
Characteristic approaches to learning and studying.
Learning Preferences
Preferred ways of studying and learning, such as using pictures instead of text, working with other people versus alone, learning in structured or in unstructured situations, and so on.
Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEA)
Latest amendment of PL 94-142; guarantees a free public education to all children, regardless of disability.
Free, Appropriate Public Education (FAPE)
Public funding to support appropriate educational programs for all students, no matter what their needs.
Zero Reject
A basic principal of IDEA specifying that no student with a disability, no matter what kind or how severe, can be denied a free public education.
Least Restrictive Environment (LRE)
Educating each child with peers in the regular classroom to the greatest extent possible.
Mainstreaming
Teaching children with disabilities in regular classes for part or all of their school day.
Integration
Fitting the child with special needs into existing class structures.
Inclusion
The integration of all students, including those with severe disabilities, into regular classrooms.
Individualized Education Plan (IEP)
Annually revised program for an identified student, detailing present achievement level, goals, and strategies drawn up by teachers, parents, specialists, and (if possible) the student.
Section 504
A part of civil rights law that prevents discrimination agains people with disabilities in programs that receive federal funds, such as public schools.
Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA)
Federal legislation prohibiting discrimination agains persons with disabilities in employment, transportation, public access, local government, and telecommunications.
Learning Disability
Problem with acquisition and use of language; may show up as difficulty with reading, writing, reasoning, or math.
Learned Helplessness
The expectation, based on previous experiences with a lack of control, that one’s efforts will lead to failure.
Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
Current term for disruptive behavior disorders marked by over activity, excessive difficulty sustaining attention, or impulsiveness.
Speech Disorder
Inability to produce sounds effectively for speaking.
Articulation Disorders
Any of a variety of pronunciation difficulties, such as the substitution, distortion, or omission of sounds.
Voicing Problems
Inappropriate pitch, quality, loudness, or intonation.
Emotional and Behavioral Disorders
Behaviors or emotions that deviate so much from the norm that they interfere with the child’s own growth and development and /or the lives of others- inappropriate behaviors, unhappiness or depression, fears and anxieties, and trouble with relationships.
Intellectual Disabilities/ Mental Retardation
Significantly below-average intellectual and adaptive social behavior, evident before the age of 18.
Transition Programming
Gradual preparation of students with special needs to move from high school into further education or training, employment, or community involvement.
Cerebral Palsy
Condition involving a range of motor or coordination difficulties due to brain damage.
Spasticity
Overly tight or tense muscles, characteristic of some forms of cerebral palsy.
Epilepsy
Disorder marked by seizures and caused by abnormal electric discharges of the brain.
Generalized Seizure/ (Tonic-Clonic Seizure)
A seizure involving a large portion of the brain.
Absence Seizure
A seizure involving only a small part of the brain that causes a child to lose contact briefly.
Low Vision
Vision limited to close objects.
Educationally Blind
Needing Braille materials in order to learn.
Autism/ Autism Spectrum Disorders
Developmental disability significantly affecting verbal and nonverbal communication and social interaction, generally evident before age 3 and ranging from mild to major.
Response to Intervention (RTI)
A process to make sure students get appropriate research-based instruction and support as soon as possible and that teachers are systematic in documenting what interventions they have tried with these students so this information can be used in planning.
Gifted and Talented Students
A very bright, creative, and talented student.