Advanced General Psychology Chapter 12

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Social Psychology
Branch of psychology that studies how a person’s thoughts, feelings, and behavior are influenced by the presence of other people and by the social and physical environment
Sense of Self
An individual’s unique sense of identity that has been influenced by social, cultural, and psychological experiences; your sense of who you are in relation to other people
Social Cognition
The mental processes people use to make sense of their social enviroments
Social Influence
The effect of situational factors and other people on an individual’s behavior
Person Perception
The mental processes we use to form judgment and draw conclusions about the characteristics and motive of other people
Social Norms
The “rules”, or expectations, for appropriate behavior in a particular social situation
Social Categorization
The mental process of categorizing people into groups on the basis of their shared characteristics
Explicit Cognition
Deliberate, conscious mental processes involved in perceptions, judgment, decisions, and reasoning
Implicit Cognition
Automatic, nonconscious mental processes that influence perceptions, judgments, decisions, and reasoning
Implicit Personality Theory
A network of assumptions or beliefs about the relationships among various types of people, traits, and behaviors
Attribution
The mental process of inferring the causes of people’s behavior, including one’s own
Fundamental Attribution Error
The tendency to attribute the behavior of others to internal, personal characteristics, while ignoring or underestimating the effects of external, situational factors
Actor-Observer Bias
The tendency to attribute our own behavior to external, situational characteristics, while ignoring or underestimating the effects of internal, personal factors
Blaming The Victim
The tendency to blame an innocent victim of misfortune for having somehow caused the problem or for not having taken steps to avoid or prevent it
Hindsight Bias
The tendency to overestimate one’s ability to have foreseen or predicted the outcome of an event
Just-World Hypothesis
The assumption that the world is fair and that therefore people get what they deserve and deserve what they got
Self-Serving Bias
The tendency to attribute successful outcomes of one’s own behavior to internal causes and unsuccessful outcomes to external, situational causes
Attitude
A learned tendency to evaluate some object, person, or issue in a particular way
Cognitive Dissonance
An unpleasant state of psychological tension or arousal that occurs when two thoughts or perceptions are inconsistent
Prejudice
A negative attitude toward people who belong to a specific social group
Stereotype
A cluster of characteristics that are associated with all members of a specific group, often including qualities that are unrelated to the objective criteria that define the group
In-group
A social group to which one belongs
Out-group
A social group to which one does not belong
Out-group homogeneity effect
The tendency to see members of out-groups as very similar to one another
In-group Bias
The tendency to judge the behavior of in-group members favorably and out-group members unfavorably
Implicit Attitudes
Preferences and biases toward particular groups that are automatic, spontaneous, unintentional, and often unconscious
Conformity
Adjusting your opinions, judgments, or behaviors so that they match the opinions, judgments, or behaviors of other people
Normative Social Influence
Behavior that is motivated by the desire to gain social acceptance and approval
Informational Social Influence
Behavior that is motivated by the desire to be correct
Obedience
The performance of a behavior in response to a direct command
Altruism
Helping another person with no expectation of personal reward or benefit
Prosocial Behavior
Any behavior that helps another, whether the underlying motive is self-serving or selfless
Bystander Effect
A phenomenon in which the greater the number of people present, the less likely each individual is to help someone in distress
Diffusion of Responsibility
A phenomenon in which the presence of other people makes it less likely that any individual will help someone in distress because the obligation to intervene is shared among all the onlookers
Aggression
Verbal or physical behavior intended to cause harm to other people
Social loafing
The tendency to expand less effort on a task when it is a group effort
Social facilitation
The tendency for the presence of other people to enhance individual performance
Deindividuation
The reduction of selfawareness and inhibitions that can occur when a person is a part of a group whose members feel anonymous
Persuasion
The deliberate attempt to influence the attitudes or behavior of another person in a situation in which that person has some freedom of choice
Categories: General Psychology