Chapter 11 General Psychology

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Parenting Styles
1. Authoritarian
2. Authoritative- firm, fair, flexible, willing to change as child grows
3. Permissive- indulgent; can’t say no
4. Conditional Regard- I will only love you if..
5. Unconditional Positive Regard
What is personality?
the different ways in which people act, feel, and think
ID
if it feels good to do it, do it… part of the personality present at birth and conscious
Superego
acts as a moral center
conscience
part of the superego that produces guilt, depending on how acceptable the behavior is
psychological defense mechanisms
ways of dealing with stress through unconsciously changing ones perception of reality
pleasure principle
immediate satisfaction of needs without caring about any consequences
ego
sense of “I”; part of the personality that develops out of a need to deal with reality, mostly conscious, rational, and logical
reality principle
satisfaction of demands of the ID only when negative consequences are NOT involved
Freud Psychodynamic
focuses on the role of the unconscious mind in the development of personality
-> how biological influences cause personality differences
Defense Mechanisms
1. denial
2. repression
3. rationalization
4. projection
5. displacement
6. reaction formation
7. regression
8. identification
9. compensation
10. sublimation
fixation
conflicts not fully developed
Carl Jung
developed a theory of a collective unconscious
Personality Unconscious and Collective Unconscious
habits
in behaviorism, sets of well-learned responses that have become automatic
social cognitive view
learning theory that includes cognitive processes such as anticipating, judging, memory, and imitation of models
trait
a consisten, enduring way of thinking, feeling, or behaving
social cognitive learning theorists
emphasize the importance of the influence of other people’s behavior and one’s own expectation of learning
reciprocal determinism
Bandura’s explanation of how the factors of environment, personal characteristics, and behavior can interact to determine future behavior
self-efficacy
individuals expectancy of how effective one’s efforts to accomplish a goal will be in any particular circumstance
expectancy
a person’s feeling that a particular behavior will lead to reinforcing consequences
locus of control
the tendency for people to assume they either have control or do not have control over events or consequences in their lives
humanistic perspective
focuses on the role of people’s life experiences and their choices in personality development
Carl Rogers
believed that people want to strive to fulfill their innate capabilities and capacities and to become everything that their genetic potential will allow them to become
self actualizing tendency
the striving to fulfill one’s innate capacities and capabilities
trait theories
theories that endeavor to describe the characteristics that make up human personality in an effort to predict future behavior
self concept
the image of oneself that develops from interactions with significant people in one’s life
self
an individual’s awareness of his/her own personal characteristics and level of functioning
real self
one’s perception of actual characteristics, traits, and abilities
IQ; average?; can it change?
a number representing a measure of intelligence, resulting from the division of one’s mental age by one’s chronological age, and then multiplying that quotient by 100; average IQ Score is 100 and it can change
emotional intelligence; mind, body, heart
mind- self awareness
body- self regulation; self motivation
heart- interpersonal self->empathy and compassion
Erikson
developed a theory based on social rather than sexual relationships covering the entire life span
Categories: General Psychology