General Psychology 1103 Kearns

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External Locus of Control
Blaming something else for outcomes
Internal Locus of Control
Blaming yourself for outcomes
Schizophrenia
“Splitting of the Mind”
Temperament
Our innate, biologically based tendency to feel or act in a certain way, whilst personality
traits are characteristics that we develop over time
Narcissism
When has such a high amount of self esteem that they become absorbed with themselves.
They feel a lack of empathy for others, and feel that they are the best
Social Psychologists study what?
How people are influenced by the interactions of others
Cognitive Psychologists study what?
How people think, pay attention, solve problems, and make decisions
Cognitive Dissonance
The mental stress of when someone has two or more contradictory beliefs or ideas at the
same time
Just World Hypothesis
The belief that when something negative happens to a person, they deserve it
Effective Tx for borderline personality disorder
A mixture of cognitive and behavioral therapy with a mindfulness approach
Transduction
Sensory receptors change the stimulus to input signals that the brain can understand.
Used through the five senses
Absolute Threshold
The minimum amount of physical stimuli required before you detect the sensory input.
Ex: how loudly must someone in the nest room for you to hear it?
Linear Perspective
When two lines merge together to one when parallel. It’s a depth cue
Modeling
When you are following a sequence of events to do a task
Shaping
Gradually molding someone or something to do something through reinforcing any
responses that are similar to the desired response
Mirror Neurons
When a child imitates another person
Phases of Memory
Encoding Storage and retrieval
Elaborative Rehearsal
When someone thinks about new information by relating it to already stored information
Premack Principal
“The grandma principle” . When a more valued activity can be used in order to increase
the performance of the less valued activities
Negative Punishment
Removing a stimulus to ensure that one one stops doing the behavior.
Ex: if an animal expects to get food when pushing a lever, but that stops happening, the animal
will stop pushing the lever
Negative Reinforcement
The subtraction of a stimulus will increase the ability that a behavior will be repeated
Broca and Wernicke’s areas
Help people speak
Institutional Review Board
Provides permission for psychologists to conduct research
Stimulus Generalization
When a stimuli that are similar to the conditioned stimulus creates the conditioned
response
Stimulus Discrimination
When an animal learns to differentiate between two stimuli if one is consistently
associated with an unconditioned stimuli and the other is not
Classical Conditioning
Learning by association
Operant Conditioning
Learning by reinforcement
Algorithm
A set of instructions for solving a problem or completing a process
General Intelligence Theory
One general factor underlies intelligence
Multiple Intelligence Theory
The idea that people have many different types of intelligence that are independent of one
another
Triarchic Theory of Intelligence
There are three different types of intelligence (Analytical, creative, and practical) that
people have
Working Memory
The ability for the mind to hold information for a short period of time
Episodic Memory
An explicit memory that is a personally experienced event
Prospective Memory
Remembering to do something in the future. I.E. don’t forget to pick timmy up from
school today
Restructuring
Thinking about a problem in a new way
Tip-of-the-Tongue Phenomenon
When we can’t remember something that we used to know, but we can still pull up things
similar to it
Absentmindedness
When a person’s thought processes are so overwhelming that they distract them from
what is currently happening
Retrograde Amnesia
When people lose memories from their past
Anterograde Amnesia
When people lose the ability to form new memories
Reasoning
Using a logical process to determine whether a statement is true or not
Psychology
The study of the mind
Inborn Influences
Inborn influences affect a baby at around two weeks
Global Workspace
Consciousness is a product of activity in specific brain reasons
Environmental Influences on Children
According to the minnesota twin project, genetics play a large influence on children, and
environment can change certain sections
What helps treat depression?
Serotonin
Melatonin is secreted by what?
The pineal gland
Materialism
The idea that the brain and mind are inseparable, and that the brain’s processing is what
gives us experiences of the mind
Amygdala
Determines how we respond to fear
Serotonin
Neurotransmitter that helps relieve depression
Independent Variable
Stands alone and isn’t changed by whatever you are trying to measure
Dependent Variable
A variable that depends on other factors, including the independent variable
Speech is controlled by which lobe?
The Broca’s Area, which is within the frontal lobe
Paradoxical Sleep
Also called REM. stage of sleep where there is beta wave activity associated with being
awake. An alert mind, rapid eye movements, dreaming, and paralysis of motor systems
are common
Restorative Theory
Sleep allows the body to restore and repair itself
Circadian Rhythm Theory
Sleep had evolved to prevent humans from harm
Consolidation Theory
Circuits wired together during the waking period are consolidated, or strengthened during sleep
Results of Harry Harlow’s study
Babies want their mothers for comfort, not because mothers are a source of food
Hypnotizing Success
A person must be highly suggestible in order to be hypnotized
Folic Acid helps babies develop what?
Spinal Cords
Categories: General Psychology