General Psychology Ch. 1 & 2 Test. Test 1.

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The study of mental activity and behavior.
Psychology
Functionalism was highly influenced by who and what?
Charles Darwin’s work on evolution.
who used a wax model to study the brain?
Da Vinci
what did John Stuart Mill argue in the 1800s?
That psychology should be a science of observation and experimentation, NOT PHILOSOPHY
what did Wilhelm Wundt do and who was he?
he was referred to as founder of modern experimental psychology. He established the first psyc lab in Leipzig, Germany
What is introspection?
when people analyze the contents of their own thoughts and experiences.
Who made structuralism and what is it?
Edward Titchener made it and it is the thought that ALL conscious experiences can be broken down into its basic underlying components.
ex. describe the apple, not as an apple but as red or shiny
Who was the father of American psychology and what did he do?
William James:
He described the stream of conciousness as each person’s continuous series of ever-changing thoughts.
what is the Gestalt Theory?
the theory that a whole of an object or scene is more important than it’s individual parts.
who was the father of psychoanalysis and what did he say?
sigmund freud: he says that much of human behavior is determined by mental processes.
Freud was one of the first people to do what?
to try to treat patients for mental disorders in a clinical setting.
who was B. F. Skinner?
took up mantle of behaviorism; thought mental states were another form of behavior.
what is available skepticism?
open to new info but weary of scientific findings. (one form of critical thinking)
what is confirmation Bias?
when people overvalue what they “know” and devalue any evidence to the contrary.
ex. “that science doesn’t apply to me!”
what is failing to judge source credibility?
when people don’t know much of a topic, they believe others easier. using logic alone like this will lead people to the incorrect conclusions
whats another phrase for Failing to Properly use Statistical info?
“going with your gut”
“gamblers prediction”
“being due”
what is hindsight bias?
using an outcome to explain why an outcome happened. lol
ex. failed to predict outcome, until after the outcome.
give an example of using heuristics that in general produce a predictable outcome.
What % of murder trials plead insanity? we think a lot because of what we see on tv but its quite few.
what is self serving bias?
when people want to feel good about themselves and it influences their thinking.
ex: “Im smart, therefore I’m right”
what is the Nature/ Nurture debate?
Genetic vs. environment!
Whether you’re born to be who you are today or was it acquired through experiences and cultural beliefs.
what is cognitive psychology?
the study of mental functions like intelligence, thinking, language, memory, and decision making. ( what exactly your brain does)
who was George A. Miller?
a behaviorist who launched the cognitive revolution.
what is social psychology?
the study of how other people or groups influence one’s thoughts, feelings, and actions. just the presence of others influences our behavior.
give an example of social psychology?
you wouldn’t scream “shots!” at church with family like you would at a bar with your friends!
Personality Psychology
the study of characteristics, thoughts, emotions, and behaviors in people and how all of that changes with different situations.
who pioneered a humanistic approach to the treatment of psychology disorders? (2 people)
Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow
what did Albert Ellis and Aaron T. Beck create?
cognitive therapies to correct faulty thoughts and beliefs.
what is the human genome?
the basic genetic code, or blueprint, for the human body
Biological level of analysis:
studies brain systems, genetics, neuroanatomy, brain imaging
Individual level of analysis:
study personality, gender, thinking, decision making
Social level of analysis:
study interpersonal behavior, social cognition groups, relationships, attitudes etc.
cultural level of analysis:
study norms, beliefs, values, symbols, ethnicity
clinical psychologists:
typical couch sitting, talk about phobias, or disorders.
Counseling psychologists:
more along the lines of marriage counseling
Industrial and organizational psychologists:
they focus on bettering the work place and attitudes and well-being of employees.
Forensic Psychologists:
Jury selection
what are the 4 primary goals of science?
1. description (what a phenomena is)
2.prediction (when will it occur)
3. control (what causes it to occur)
4.explanation (why it occurs)
what are self report methods?
methods for data collection, usually questionnaires or surveys
what do researchers have to consider when doing an interview?
the the interviewee could be faking good. (saying what they think the interviewer wants to hear)
what is a directionality problem?
a prob in a correlational study where you know 2 variables correlate but don’t know which caused the changes in the other.
ex. lack of sleep and stress.
what is a third variable problem?
when researcher cannot fully manipulate variables so they start to doubt themselves.
what does establishing correlations help us do?
make predictions!
Independent variable:
variable that is manipulated to cause change in an outcome.
Dependent variable:
a variable that is measured (happiness, IQ) or the outcome being measured.
what is a convenience sample?
this sample consists of people who are conveniently available for the study.
what is random assignment?
people are placed into the conditions of an experiment so everyone has an equal chance of being the independent variable.
what is selection bias?
unintended differences between the participants in different groups. (in an experiment)
what are Institutional Review Boards?
groups of people who are responsible for reviewing research to ensure that it meets the accepted standards of science and to protect the physical and emotional well being of the participants.
Confidentiality:
where personal info is gathered but MAY NOT be shared with anyone.
Anonymity:
when the researchers can’t get any personal info at all. even if its kept quiet.
what is the relative risk of participation?
its when researchers cannot ask people to endure unreasonable amounts of pain.
risk/benefit ratio?
an analysis of whether the research is important enough to place participants at risk or not.
what is informed consent?
the people’s right (who volunteer for psychological research) to know what they are going to go through before they do it.
Construct validity:
the extent to which variables measure what they are supposed to measure.
External validity:
the degree to which the findings of a study can be generalized to other people, settings, or situations
Internal validity:
when the affects in an experiment are due to the INDEPENDENT variable. not the confounds
reliability:
where you can measure the same outcome over and over and is consistent
accuracy:
free from error
random error:
when the amount of error in a measurement is different each time
systematic error:
when the amount of error in a measurement is constant. (always one second off)
what is a meta analysis?
a study of studies that combines the findings of multiple studies to arrive to a conclusion.
Categories: General Psychology