General Psychology Chapter 5

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Consciousness
an organism’s awareness of internal events and the external environment, varies in its depth and exists along a continuum.
Alternate states of consciousness (ASCs) examples are
sleeping and dreaming
Circadian rhythm
a 24-hour sleep/awake cycle
NREM sleep
non-rapid-eye-movement sleep; one of the four stages of sleep
REM sleep
rapid-eye-movement sleep; one of the four stages of sleep
NREM and REM sleep are important for our
biological functioning
The four major theories about why we sleep are
Adaptation/protection theory , repair/restoration theory, growth/development theory, and the learning/memory theory.
Adaptation/protection theory
proposes that sleep evolved to conserve energy and to provide protection from predators
repair/restoration theory
suggests that sleep helps us recuperate from the day’s events
growth/development theory
argues that we use sleep for growth
learning/memory theory
says that we should use sleep for consolidation, storage, and maintenance of memories.
Three major theories about why we dream are Freud’s
wish-fulfillment view, the activation-synthesis hypothesis, and cognitive view
sleep-wake disorders include
insomnia, narcolepsy, sleep apnea, nightmares, and sleep terrors.
Natural sleep aids, based on behavior therapy, are
helpful ways to treat sleep-wake disorders and avoid problems associated with medication
Psychoactive drugs
influence the nervous system in a variety of ways.
agonist drug
enhancing a particular neurotransmitter’s effect; a psychoactive drug
antagonist drug
inhibiting a drug; also a psychoactive drug
drug abuse
drug-taking behavior that causes emotional or physical harm to oneself or others
Addiction
refers to a condition in which a person feels compelled to use a specific drug
Psychological dependence
mental desire or craving to achieve a drug’s effects
Physical dependence
biological changes that make a drug necessary for minimum daily functioning
withdrawal symptoms
repeated use of a drug can produce decreased sensitivity, or tolerance
Cross-tolerance
when using one drug increases tolerance for another drug
Psychologists divide psychoactive drugs into — categories
4 categories
Depressants
alcohol, barbiturates, Rohypnol, and Ketamine
Stimulants
caffeine, nicotine, cocaine, and amphetamines
opiates
morphine, heroin, and codeine
hallucinogens
marijuana and LSD
Meditation
techniques designed to focus attention, block out distractions, and produce an alternate state of consciousness
hypnosis
a trance-like state of heightened suggestibility, deep relaxation, and intense focus
Categories: General Psychology