General Psychology Chapters 14 & 15 test

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Post Traumatic Stress Disorder
Enduring psychological disturbance attributed to the experience of a major traumatic event
Re-experiencing PTSD
memories, flashbacks, nightmares
Physiological arousal PTSD
jumpy, jittery, hyper-vigilant
Etiology of Anxiety Disorders
the cause of anxiety disorders
Biological, Conditioned/Learned, Cognitive, Study
Biological causes of anxiety
concordance rate, neurochemical activity (GABA, seratonin)
Concordance rate (anxiety)
percentage of twin pairs or other pairs of relatives that exhibit the same disorder
Cognitive factors of anxiety
misinterpret harmless situations as threatening
focus excessive attn on perceived threats
selectively recall info that seems threatening
Study (cause of anxiety)
anxious vs non-anxious group
Dissociative Disorders
a class of disorders in which people lose contact w/ portions of their consciousness/memory, resulting in disruptions in their sense of identity (uncommon)
3 types of dissociative disorders
Dissociative Amnesia
Dissociative Fugue
Dissociative Identity Disorder
Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID)
the coexistences in one person of two or more largely complete and usually very different personalities
Causes of DID
extreme stress, severe emotional trauma during childhood (rejection from parents, sexual/physical abuse)
What different personalities can consist of
different personalities can assert different age, race, gender, sexual orientation
Mood Disorders (Origins)
biological, psychological, biopsychosocial
Biological origin of mood disorders
genetic factors, norepinephrine & seratonin
Psychological origin of mood disorders
learned helplessness, perfectionism & unrealistic expectations, attributional styles (attribute bad things that happen to their own stupidity/incompetence)
Biopsychosocial origin of mood disorders
interaction between all origins
Details of mood disorders
characterized by disturbance in expressed emotions (sadness vs elation)
Types of mood disorders
Major Depressive Disorder, Childhood Depression, Bipolar Disorder
Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)
persistent feelings of sadness, loss of interest, feelings of worthlessness, helplessness, hopelessness, or guilt, inability to concentrate
Details of MDD
affects 1 in 5 people, affects more women than men, severe cases may result in: psychomotor retardation (too tired to move), suicidal ideation (having a suicidal thought over & over), homicidal ideation (thinking about killing someone else over & over)
Childhood Depression
angry, ill, irritable
don’t look like they feel bad, just seem moody & angry
often strike out at someone or react angrily toward parents/caregivers
desire comfort/consistency (they want love and to be held but don’t believe anyone is capable of doing so
Bipolar Disorder
mood swings from ecstatic elation to deep depression
Details of Bipolar
manic episodes: rapid speech (if you try to stop them, they get angry), indiscriminate sex, shopping trips they can’t afford, words are nonsense, females go through depression first, males go through mania
Bipolar I
mixed episode: sad and crying then really angry & mad
Bipolar II
alternating depressive & hypomanic episodes
Hypomania vs Mania
Hypomania: feeling good, embracing it
Mania: scared, stressed, too much is going on, overwhelmed
Mania
high energy & high mood along w/ 3 or more symptoms nearly every day for 1 week or more
Symptoms of mania
needing less sleep to fee rested, talking rapidly/ excessively, distractability, fast thoughts, poor judgement, inflated self-esteem, reckless behavior
Schizophrenia
severe psychological disorder characterized by disturbances in thought & language, perception & attention, motor activity, mood, withdrawal & absorption in fantasy
Positive symptoms of Schizophrenia
presence of inappropriate behavior
agitated behavior, hallucinations, delusions, disorganized thinking, nonsensical speech
Negative symptoms of Schizophrenia
absence of appropriate behavior
flat, emotionless voice, blank faces, rigid, motionless bodies, mutism
Problems in thinking and language (schizo)
thinking & communication become unraveled, delusions of grandeur, of persecution, of jealousy
Delusions of grandeur
thinking they’re better/smarter/more powerful
Delusions of persecution
thinking people are trying to kill them
Delusions of jealousy
thinking people want to be them/steal their identity
Types of schizophrenia
Paranoid, disorganized, catatonic
Paranoid schizophrenia
delusions of grandeur, jealousy, persecution
Disorganized schizophrenia
incoherence, extreme social impairment, disorganized behavior, delusions, loosening of associations, highly inappropriate emotional responses, silliness, giggling, nonsensical speech, neglect appearance & hygiene
Catatonic schizophrenia
most rare, impairment in motor activity (slowing into a stupor), may maintain unusual, difficult posture for hours
Waxy flexibility
remain in stage manipulated by others (catatonic schiz)
Mutism
seem to be in a trance, or asleep, yet report hearing everything that went on around them (catatonic schizo)
Factors of Schizophrenia
biological, biopsychosocial
Biological factors of Schizophrenia
brain differences, heredity, complications during pregnancy/birth, birth during winter, dopamine theory
Biopsychosocial factors of Schizophrenia
genetic predisposition, genetic vulnerability interacts w/ other factors
One key problem with the provision of psychotherapy is that
there are many people who need therapy but don’t receive treatment
After undergoing psychoanalysis for several months, Karen has suddenly started “forgetting” to attend her therapy sessions. Karen’s behavior is most likely a form of
resistance
The key task of the client-centered therapist is
clarification of the client’s feelings
Evaluating the effectiveness of psychotherapy is complicated and difficult because
disorders sometimes clear up on their own, different approaches to treatment pursue entirely different goals, and clients’ problems vary in severity
Systematic desensitization is particularly effective for the treatment of ___________ disorders
phobic
Linda’s therapist has her practice active listening skills in structured role-playing exercises. Later, Linda is gradually asked to practice these skills with family members, friends, and finally her boss. Linda is undergoing
social skills training
After being released from the hospital, many schizophrenic patients stop taking their antipsychotic medication because
of the unpleasant side effects
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) appear to have value for the treatment of _______ disorders
depressive
Modern psychotherapy
was spawned by a cultural milieu that viewed the self as an independent, rational being
Many people repeatedly go in and out of mental hospitals. Typically, such people are released because ______________; they are eventually readmitted because ________________.
they have been stabilized through drug therapy; their condition deteriorates once again because of inadequate outpatient care
The type of professional training a therapist has
is not all that important because talented therapists can be found in all of the mental health professions
Which of the following could be explained by regression toward the mean?
you get a terrible bowling score in one game and an average score in the next game
Although Sue always feels a high level of dread, worry, and anxiety, she still manages to meet her daily responsibilities. Sue’s behavior
can still be considered abnormal because she feels great personal disstress
The observation that people acquire phobias of ancient sources (such as snakes) much more readily than modern phobias (such as electrical outlets) can best be explained by
preparedness/an evolved module for fear learning
Most of the drugs that are useful in the treatment of schizophrenia are known to dampen _________ activity in the brain, suggesting that disruptions in the activity of this neurotransmitter may contribute to the development of the disorder
dopamine
Research suggests that there us an association between schizophrenia and
enlarged brain ventricles
Categories: General Psychology