General Psychology Chapters 14 & 17 Vocab
Health Psychology (p. 472)
The branch of psychology that investigates the psychological factors related to wellness and illness, including the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of medical problems.
Psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) (p. 472)
The study of the relationship among psychological factors, the immune system, and the brain.
Stress (p. 473)
A person’s response to events that are threatening or challenging.
Cataclysmic Events (p. 474)
Strong stressors that occur suddenly and typically affect many people at once (e.g., natural disasters).
Personal Stressors (p. 474)
Major life events, such as the death of a family member, that have immediate negative consequences that generally fade with time.
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) (p. 474)
A phenomenon in which victims of major catastrophes or strong personal stressors feel long-lasting effects that may include re-experiencing the event in vivid flashbacks or dreams.
background Stressors (“Daily Hassles”) (p. 475)
Everyday annoyances, such as being stuck in traffic, that cause minor irritations and may have long-term ill effects if they continue or are compounded by other stressful events.
Psychophysiological Disorders (p. 477)
Medical problems influenced by an interaction of psychological, emotional, and physical difficulties.
General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS) (p. 478)
A theory developed by Selye that suggests that a person’s response to a stressor consists of three stages: alarm and mobilization, resistance, and exhaustion.
Coping (p. 480)
The efforts to control, reduce, or learn to tolerate the threats that lead to stress.
Learned Helplessness (p. 481)
A state in which people conclude that unpleasant or aversive stimuli cannot be controlled- a view of the world that becomes so ingrained that they cease trying to remedy the aversive circumstances even if they actually can exert some influence on the situation.
Hardiness (p. 481)
A personality characteristic that is associated with a lower rate of stress-related illness and consists of three components: commitment, challenge, and control.
Social Support (p. 482)
A mutual network of caring, interested others.
Type a Behavior Pattern (p. 485)
A cluster of behaviors involving hostility, competitiveness, time urgency, and feeling driven.
Type B Behavior Pattern (p. 486)
A cluster of behaviors characterized by a patient, cooperative, noncompetitive, and nonaggressive manner.
Reactance (p. 492)
A negative emotional and cognitive reaction that results from the restriction of one’s freedom.
Subjective Well-Being (p. 495)
People’s own evaluation of their lives in terms of both their thoughts and their emotions.
Social Psychology (p. 578)
The scientific study of how people’s thoughts, feelings, and actions are affected by others.
Attitudes (p. 579)
Evaluations of a particular person, behavior, belief, or concept.
Central Route Processing (p. 580)
Message interpretation characterized by thoughtful consideration of the issues and arguments used to persuade.
Peripheral Route Processing (p. 580)
Message interpretation characterized by consideration of the source and related general information rather than of the message itself.
Cognitive Dissonance (p. 582)
The conflict that occurs when a person holds two contradictory attitudes or thoughts (referred to as cognitions).
Social Cognition (p. 583)
The cognitive processes by which people understand and make sense of others and themselves.
Schemas (p. 583)
Organized bodies of information stored in memory that bias the way new information is interpreted, stored, and recalled.
Central Traits (p. 584)
The major traits considered in forming impressions of others.
attribution Theory (p. 585)
The theory of personality that seeks to explain how we decide, on the basis of samples of an individual’s behavior, what the specific causes of that person’s behavior are.
Situational Causes (of Behavior) (p. 585)
Perceived causes of behavior that are based on environmental factors.
Dispositional Causes (of Behavior) (p. 586)
Perceived causes of behavior that are based on internal traits or personality factors.
Halo Effect (p. 586)
A phenomenon in which an initial understanding that a person has positive traits is used to infer other uniformly positive characteristics.
Assumed-Similarity Bias (p. 586)
The tendency to think of people as being similar to oneself even when meeting them for the first time.
Self-Serving Bias (p. 587)
The tendency to attribute personal success to personal factors (skill, ability, or effort) and to attribute failure to factors outside oneself.
Fundamental Attribution Error (p. 587)
A tendency to over attribute others’ behavior to dispositional causes and minimize of the importance of situational causes.
Social Influence (p. 590)
The process by which the actions of an individual or group affect the behavior of others.
Group (p. 590)
Two or more people who interact with one another, perceive themselves as part of a group, and are interdependent.
Conformity (p. 590)
A change in behavior or attitudes brought about by a desire to follow the beliefs or standards of other people.
Status (p. 591)
The social rank held within a group.
Social Supporter (p. 591
A group member whose dissenting views make nonconformity to the group easier.
Groupthink (p. 592)
A type of thinking in which group members share such a strong motivation to achieve consensus that they lose the ability to critically evaluate alternative points of view.
Compliance (p. 593)
Behavior that occurs in response to direct social pressure.
Industrial-Organizational (I/O) Psychology (p. 595)
The branch of psychology focusing on work and job-related issues, including worker motivation, satisfaction, safety, and productivity.
Obedience (p. 595)
A change in behavior in response to the commands of others.
Stereotype (p. 598)
A set of generalized beliefs and expectations about a particular group and its members.
Prejudice (p. 598)
A negative (or positive) evaluation of a particular group and its members.
Discrimination (p. 598)
Behavior directed toward individuals on the basis of their membership in a particular group.
Social Neuroscience (p. 600)
The subfield of social psychology that seeks to identify the neural basis of social behavior.
Interpersonal Attraction (or Close Relationship) (p. 604)
Positive feelings for others; liking and loving.
Reciprocity-of-Liking Effect (p. 605)
A tendency to like those who like us.
Passionate (or Romantic) Love (p. 605)
A state of intense absorption in someone that includes intense physiological arousal, psychological interest, and caring for the needs of another.
Companionate Love (p. 605)
The strong affection we have for those with whom our lives are deeply involved.
Aggression (p. 608)
The intentional injury of, or harm to, another person.
Catharsis (p. 609)
The process of discharging built-up aggressive energy.
Prosocial Behavior (p. 611)
Diffusion of Responsibility (p. 611)
The tendency for people to feel that responsibility for acting is shared, or diffused, among those present.
Altruism (p. 611)
Helping behavior that is beneficial to others but clearly requires self-sacrifice.