General Psychology Comprehensive Exam
The focus of Cognitive psychoogy…
Thinking, perceiving, problem solving, memory, language, and information processing
Sociocultural psychology is…
how ethnicity, religion, and socioeconmic status play a role in the behavior.
Variable that is manipulated to determine its casual effect on the dependent variable
Variable that is measured; it is affected by the independent variable
Two variables move in the same way
Two factors vary in opposite directions
Functions of dendrites
Branching neuron structures that recieve neural impluses from other neurons and convey impulses toward the cell body
Functions of axon
Long, tubelike structure that conveys impulses away from the neuron’s cell body toward other neurons or to muscles or glands.
The function of the endocrine system is…
Collection of glads located throughout the body that manufacture and secrete hormones into the bloodstream.
cerebral cortex consists of…
Thin surface layer on the cerebral hemisphere that regulates most complex behavior, including sensations, motor control, and higher mental processes.
What are the three stages of General Adaptation Syndrome
Alarm, resistance, and exhaustion
What are the effective stratagies for stress management?
Health and exercise, positive beliefs, Social skills, social support, control, material resources, sense of humor, and relaxation
What are the psyical senses
Vison, Audition (hearing, Olfaction (smell), Gustation (taste), and Body senses
Process of detecting, converting, and transforming raw sensory information from the external and internal environments to the brain.
Process of selecting, organizing, and interpreting sensory information into meaningful patterns.
What is chronic insomnia?
Persistent difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep, or waking up too early
Changes in bodily processes that make a drug necessary for minimal functioning.
Know the differences between unconditioned response, unconditioned stimulus, conditioned response, and conditioned stimulus
(CS) Tone (bell)
Know the differences between positive and negative response/reinforcement
(PR) adds stimulus and weakens behavior
(NR) takes away stimulus and weakens behavior
(PRE) adds stimulus and strengthens behavior
(NRE) Takes away stimules and strenghtens behavior
What is the defination of cognition?
Mental activites involved in acquiringm storing, retrieving, and using knowledge. It includes the processes of sensation and perception, consciousness, learning, and memory
What is the defination of intelligence?
Global capacity to think rationally, act purposefully, and deal effectively with the environment
What characterizes the germinal period of prenatal development?
First stage of prenatal development, which begins with ovulation, conception, and implantation in the uterus (the first two weeks)
What are Piagets’s 4 stages of cognitive development?
Concrete Operational (7-11)
Formal Operational (11-up)
What is the last stage of Erikson’s psychosocial development?
Ego integrity versus despair (late adulthood) Older adults reflect on their past. Life well-spent means self-acceptance and satifaction; if not they experience regret and deep dissatifaction
In Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs, what are the physiological needs?
Self-actualization, Esteem, belonging and love, safety, and physiological
What is facial feedback hypothesis?
Movements of the facial muscles produce and/or intensify our subjective experience of emtion. Charles Darwin’s proposal that freely expressing an emotion intensifies it while suppressing outward expression diminishes it.
What is the Five Factor Model?
Openness, Conscientiousness, Exroversion, Agreeableness, Neuroticism
What are the types of anxiety disorders?
Generalized Anxiety disorder, Panic, Phobia, and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)
Cognitive therapists focus on…
Challenge their thoughts, chanfe how they interpret events (changing self-destructive thinking and changing self-defeating behaviors )