General Psychology: Exam 2, Chapters 3 + 4

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Sensation
the process of detecting a stimulus, such as light, sound, heat or pressure
Perception
the process of integrating, organizing, or interpreting sensations
Transduction
the process by which a form of physical energy is converted into a coded neural signal that can be processed by the nervous system
Absolute Threshold
the smallest possible strength of a stimulus that can be detected half of the time.
Weber’s Law
A principle of sensation that holds the size of just noticeable difference will vary depending on its relation to the strength of the original stimulus
Sensory Adaptation
a decline in sensitivity to a constant stimulus
Trichromatic Theory of Colour
the theory that the sensation of colour results because cones in the retina are specifically sensitive to red light, green light, or blue light.
Opponent Process Theory of Colour
the theory that color vision is the product of opposing pairs of colour receptors: red-green, blue-yellow, and black-white; when one pair of a colour pair is stimulated, the other member is inhibited.
Olfaction
the technical term for the sense of smell
Gustation
the technical term for the sense of taste
Pheromones
Chemical signals that are released by an animal that communicate and affect the behaviour of other animals of that same species
Kinestethic
the technical name for the sense of location of one body part to another
Gate-Control Theory of Pain
the theory that pain is both physiological and psychological factors that cause spinal gates to open and relay patterns of intense stimulation to the brain, which perceives them as pain
Vestibular Sense
the technical term for the sense of balance, or equillibrium
Circadian Rhythm
a cycle or rhythm that is roughly 24 hours long; the cyclical daily fluctuations
Melatonin
a hormone produced by the pineal gland that causes sleepiness
REM
type of sleep where rapid eye movements occur, and voluntary muscle movement is suppressed
NREM
quiet, typically dreamless sleep in which rapid eye movements are absent; divided into four stages; also called quiet sleep
Insomnia
a condition in which a person regularly experiences an inability to fall asleep, stay asleep, or to feel adequately rested by sleep
Obstructive Sleep Disorder
a sleep disorder in which the person repeatedly stops breathing during sleep
Narcolepsy
a sleep disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness and brief lapses into sleep throughout the day
Somnambulism
sleep walking, doing things while asleep
Sleep Terror
a sleep disturbance characterized by an episode of increased physiological arousal, intense fear, and panic, frightening hallucinations, and no recall of the episode the next morning
REM Sleep Behavior Disorder
a sleep disorder characterized by the brain’s failure to suppress voluntary actions during REM sleep, resulting in the sleeper verbally and physically responding to the dream story
EEG
the graphic record of brain activity produced by an electroencephalograph
Sleep Paralysis
a temporary condition in which a person is unable to move upon awakening in the morning or during the night
Sleep Spindles
Short bursts of brain activity that characterize stage 2 NREM sleep
Psychoactive Drugs
A drug that alters consciousness, perception, mood, and behavior
Hypnosis
A cooperative social interaction in which the hypnotized person responds to the hypnotist’s suggestions which changes in perception, memory, and behavior
Categories: General Psychology