General Psychology Exam 3 McElwee Pitt State

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Developmental Psychology
scientific approach which aims to explain how children and adults change over time physically, socially, and cognitively
Zygote
when a female human egg is fertilized, no longer classified as an egg, 0-2 weeks
embryo
early, prenatal stage makes up majority of first trimester, 2nd-8th week after fertilization of embryo, critical stage for cognitive and physical development
fetus
8th week-birth developing human organism
teratogens
harmful things that can effect development and the baby’s environment
social responsiveness
babies are extremely socially responsive, especially responsive to human faces
brain development first two years
huge development, 75% connections of neural networks
experiment baby kicking to make mobile move
shows that even at early age babies make an association between things and have latent memory, process memory, can remember that for up to two weeks
object permanence
Piagets term, happens at eight months, baby realizes that objects continue to exist even when out of sight
assimilation
new experiences that a child has are integrated into the current understand they already have
accommodation
new experiences are too different meaning you have to change your scheme, change big idea
conservation
piagets term, occurs from first two properties like volume amd mass, children do not learn they do not stay the same when the objects shape is changed, (clay in a snake or ball, tall glass and short glass)
theory of mind
being able to tell that people have different feelings and emotions from you
Harlow’s study
study with monkeys, shows that body contact promotes attachment
-Monkeys that were isolated then put into a community were very aggressive and showed fear, isolation causes aggression
secure attachment
being comforted by mother when she returns
-fostered by a parent responding to a baby supportively… when responded to in a supportive manner the baby is much more likely to become severly attached
avoidant attachment
ignoring mother when she returns
reactant attachment
clingy and not comforted when mother returns
authoritarian parenting style
someone with rules without reason, doing because I said so, leads to depression
authoritative parenting style
rules with reasons, lots of communication, leads to high self esteem
permissive parenting style
not much structure at all, leads to immature children
puberty
time of life when maturation of the reproduction system and physical body
brain in teens
still growth going on, major change is speed of transmisson increases particularly in frontal lobe with reasoning, increases levels of myleniation, increase decision making and thinking
Erikson’s studies
Build on one another, successfully get through one stage before you can move on to the next, trust vs mistrust, have identity first
parent/teen relationship
parents and teens in this country typically get along well, only minor problems
late adulthood
reaction time decreases, working memory decreases (remember names solve puzzles becomes harder)
crystallized intelligence
knowledge, verbal abilities, vocabulary increase well into 80s and beyond can always learn more and more
fluid intelligence
working memory, speed, decrease as you age and you may have to write things down vs relying on working memory
social clock
culturally preferred time to things… not supposed to get married at 18
amygdala
in older adults deminishes in its activity, most likely to disregard to the negative and focus on positive, teens are opposite
Erikson and late adulthood
last stage integrity vs despare, to successfully get through you have to be able to look back at your life and say my life has meaning
fundamental attribution error
overestimate the character and underestimate the situation
foot-in-the-door
comply with a larger request when we have already complied with a smaller one
zimbardo
prison study, role play and attitudes, role played can change your attitudes and behaviors
chameleon effect
unconscious copying of other people
conformity
adjusting your behavior and thinking to group standards
Milgram’s study
study on obedience, most of teachers in study were obedient even when it meant hurting somebody, very obedient, much more than postulated or what people thought they would be
social facilitation
perform well learned task even better for audience, really well for an audience
social loafing
tend to work less hard in groups vs individually
deindividuation
loss of self-awareness when in a situation where arousal levels are very high and we feel anonymous
groupthink
everybody in a group agrees with each other and can lead to bad decisions
prejudice
attitude- can lead to discrimination
discrimination
behavior
In group/out group
us/ them
mere exposure effect
have increased attraction to stimuli that is already familiar to us, the more we’ve seen more likely to think we like it (songs, people)
bystander effect
more people in area less likely to get help
Sherif’s study
can reduce conflict between groups if you require them to cooraporate with each other, has to be a requirement ( in order to pass this class we have to…)
personality
characteristic pattern on thinking, feelings, and behaving
Freud unconscious
one of biggest concepts… thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories of which we are unaware
oedipus complex
boy’s feeling of guilt because of sexual desire he has for his mother
unconditional positive regard
Rogers term, attitude of total acceptance to other people, supposed to help build their self-image to make them better people
MMPI
personality inventory
Big Five
-examines five areas of personality
-has to do with traits we have in our personalities, trait theory
-OCEAN
openness to experience/intellect
are generally receptive to entertaining new and challenging facets of cultural life, as well as personal thoughts and emotions
neuroticism
being emotional unstable (only one that’s negative in orientation), openness to experience
extroversion
quality of being outgoing and directing attention to things other than yourself, and fun loving
free association
Freuds method to explore the unconscious, it expresses itself in dreams, slip of the tongue, letting thoughts flow freely, saying what comes to mind- it lets counselor understand unconscious
agreeableness
usually warm, friendly, and tactful. They generally have an optimistic view of human nature and get along well with others.
conscientiousness
personality trait of being careful, or vigilant, organized, everything on time, desires to do a task well
id
pleasure principle
ego
reality principle, practical
superego
ideals, “shoulds”, perfect person you want to be
trait theory
theory based on idea that you have an inherited temperate, or approach to the world, criticized for over estimating the consistency of behavior from one situation to another
Categories: General Psychology