General Psychology Psy 101 Chapter 5

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Sensory Memory
Immediate, very belief recording of sensory info. Consists of registers, where we temporarily store incoming sensory info.
Iconic Memory
Visual sensory register, holds an exact copy of visual input, but for less than 1 sec.
sperling
full report procedure, report entire matrix, partial report procedure, report 1 row based on tone
Short Term (STM)
Recognized info. from sensory memory enters consciousness, testing capacity of STM, memory span task -7 +/- 2 ” chunks” of info. Testing duration of STM, Duration task, 30 seconds. Maintenance Rehearsal, keep info in STM
Long Term Memory (LTM)
store info for long period of time, unlimited capacity.
Explicit Memories
requires conscious recall
Semantic Memories
Factual Knowledge
Episodic Memories
Personal Experiences
Implicit memories
Does not require conscious recall, implicit procedure, memory for performance of actions or skills
Anterograde Amnesia
Inability to form memories after trauma
retrograde Amnesia
Inability to remember events before trauma
H.M
Anterograde Amnesia for explicit memory only, can form new implicit memories
What did we learn?
explicit/ implicit memories processed in different parts of brain. STM and LTM 2 different stages
STM & LTM
Free recall task, primacy effect- LTM, Recency effect STM
Encoding
Level of processing theory, LTM best info processed semantically, Next best for info processed acoustically , worst info processed physically
Elaborative Rehearsal
Relating new info into info already in LTM, more retrieval cues.
Self- Reference effect
Elaborate on new material by relating to it yourself
Mnemonic Memory
memory aid, requires elaborative rehearsal
Method of loci
associated with locations in a room
spacing effect
distribute studying
overlearning
studying past point of initial learning
Recall
retrieve info learned earlier ( No retrieval cue to help remember)
Recognition
Recognize info learned earlier .
Encoding failure
info never entered LTM
Storage decay
info not accessed decays from LTM
Proactive interference
older info interferes with retrieval of newer info
Retroactive interference
Newer info interferes with retrieval of older info
Cue- dependent theory
info avaiable, but cues necessary for retrieval arent avaliable
Schemas
frameworks for knowledge; help to organize world, people “misremember” info in ways that are consistent with schemas
source misattribution
attributing an event to the wrong source
misinformation effect
distortion of memory by exposure to misleading information
loftus & palmer (1974)
watched traffic accident film ” smashed” or “hit”. Smashed, higher speed estimates & more likely to report seeing broken glass
Categories: General Psychology