General Psychology Terms – Chapter 10: Intelligence (ALL)

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Mental quality consisting of the ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situations.
Intelligence Test
A method for assessing an individual’s mental aptitudes and comparing them with those of others, using numerical scores.
General Intelligence (g)
A general intelligence factor that, according to Spearman and others, underlies specific mental abilities and is therefore measured by every task on an intelligence test.
Factor Analysis
A statistical procedure that identifies clusters of related items (called factors) on a test; used to identify different dimensions of performance that underlies a person’s total score.
Savant Syndrome
A condition in which a person otherwise limited in mental ability has an exceptional specific skill, such as in computation or drawing.
The ability to produce novel and valuable ideas.
Emotional Intelligence
The ability to perceive, understand, manage, and use emotions.
Mental Age
A measure of intelligence test performance devised by Binet; the chronological age that most typically corresponds to a given level of performance. Thus, a child who does as well as the average 8-year-old is said to have a mental age of 8.
The widely used American revision (by Terman at Stanford University) of Binet’s original intelligence test.
Intelligence Quotient (IQ)
Defined originally as the ration of mental age (ma) to chronological age (ca) multiplied by 100 (thus, IQ = ma/ca x 100). On contemporary intelligence tests, the average performance for a given age is assigned a score of 100.
Achievement Test
A test designed to assess what a person has learned.
Aptitude Test
A test designed to predict a person’s future performance; aptitude is the capacity to learn.
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)
The WAIS is the most widely used intelligence test; contains verbal and performance (nonverbal) subtests.
Defining meaningful scores by comparison with the performance of a pretested group.
Normal Curve
The symmetrical, bell-shaped curve that describes the distribution of many physical and psychological attributes. Most scores fall near the average, and fewer and fewer scores lies near the extremes.
The extent to which a test yields consistent results, as assessed by the consistency of scores on two halves of the test, or on retesting.
The extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is supposed to. (See also Content Validity and Predictive Validity.)
Content Validity
The extent to which a test samples the behavior that is of interest.
Predictive Validity
The success with which a test predicts the behavior it is designed to predict; it is assessed by computing the correlation between test scores and the criterion behavior. (Also called Criterion-Related Validity.)
A group of people from a given time period.
Crystallized Intelligence
Our accumulated knowledge and verbal skills; tends to increase with age.
Fluid Intelligence
Our ability to reason speedily and abstractly; tend to decrease during late adulthood.
Intellectual Disability
A condition of limited mental ability, indicated by an intelligence score of 70 or below and difficulty in adapting to the demands of life; varies from mild to profound. (Formerly referred to as Mental Retardation.)
Down Syndrome
A condition of mild to severe intellectual disability and associated physical disorders caused by an extra copy of chromosome 21.
The proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to genes. The heritability of a trait may vary, depending on the range of populations and environments studied.
Stereotype Threat
A self-confirming concern that one will be evaluated based on a negative stereotype.
Two psychologists who assessed intelligence
Binet & Terman
3 intelligences: analytical, creative intelligence, practical intelligence.
8 intelligences
Sternberg’s “Five Components of Creativity”
Expertise, imaginative thinking skills, a venturesome personality, intrinsic motivation, a creative environment,
Categories: General Psychology