General Psychology

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What is Psychology?
The scientific study of behavior and mental processes
Psychology is the most popular major at many colleges and universities
Psychology is?
1. Personally relevant
2. Relevant to us all
Psychological science
The study of mind, brain, and behavior
Mind (Definition)
refers to mental activity
Brain (Definition)
The biological organ and it’s biological processes
Behavior (Definition)
wide variety of observable actions
Goals of psychology
Understand mental activity, social interactions, and how people acquire behavior
Critical thinking (Definition)
Systematically evaluating information to reach reasonable conclusions
What Are the Scientific Foundations of Psychology?
1. Psychology originated in philosophy
2. Chinese/Muslim philosophers and scientists speculated about human behavior
3. In nineteenth-century Europe, psychology emerged as a scientific discipline
4.Development of schools of thought
what is a LMFT?
Licensed Marriage and Family Therapist. Goes to college. Earns a graduate degree. Earns licensure as an LMFT Clinically might also be called a therapist
Medical Doctor. Earns their MD, then specializes in Psychiatric Medication. Normally does not perform therapy, only medication management
Ancient Greek philosophers_______ and ________ debated the source of human psychology
Aristotle, Plato
Mind/body problem: Are the mind and body separate and distinct?
It was originally thought that they were separate but it is false THEY ARE ONE IN THE SAME. your brain controls your body.
“Mind/body problem: Are the mind and body separate and distinct?” Who was the first to challenge this?
1500’s Leonardo da Vinci challenged this doctrine.
What is dualism?
suggestion that body and mind were indeed separate but that some mental functions resulted from bodily functions.
Who said “I think, therefore I am”
Rene’ Descartes
Who developed the first Psychology lab in Leipzig, Germany 1879?
Wilhelm Wundt
Who Developed the Method of Introspection?
Wilhelm Wundt
What is introspection?
A systematic examination of subjective mental experiences that requires people to inspect and report on the content of their thoughts.
Who Pioneered a school of thought that became known as structuralism?
Edward Titchener
What is structuralism?
An approach to psychology based on the idea that Conscious experience can be broken down into its basic underlying components. Like individual bricks of experience creating an entire structure
Who is William James? What is his occupation?
physiologist, philosopher
stream of consciousness
Each person’s ever changing thoughts.
An approach to psychology concerned with the adaptive purpose, or function, of mind and behavior.Psychologists ought to examine the functions served by the mind
evolutionary theory
Views the history of a species in terms of the inherited , adaptive value of a physical characteristics, of mental activity, and of behavior
As randomly mutated genes are passed along from generation to generation, species change over time
Natural selection
Mutations that facilitate survival and reproduction are passed along
Survival of the fittest
Species that are better adapted to their environments will survive and reproduce
Functionalists argued that ___________ .
behavior serves a purpose
Gestalt theory
Founded by Max Wertheimer in 1912. The whole of conscious experience is different from the sum of its parts.
Sigmund Freud
Much of human behavior is determined by mental processes operating below the level of awareness
The mental processes that operate below the level of consciousness. and unconscious mental forces can produce psychological discomfort/disorders.
Psychodynamic Theory
Personality theory contending that behavior results from psychological factors that interact within the individual, often outside of conscious awareness.
The process of therapy that attempts to bring the contents of the unconscious mind into conscious awareness so that our conflicts can be revealed
Who Developed Behaviorism?
John B. Watson
What did John B. Watson challege?
psychology’s focus on conscious and unconscious mental processes
focus on how observable environmental stimuli affect behavioral responses
Believed all behaviors are learned (nurture)
spirit of time
B. F. Skinner
took up the mantle of behaviorism
-Research emphasized how behavior is shaped by the consequences that follow them

-Skinner argued that mental processes were of no scientific value in explaining behavior

Operant conditioning
Behaviors that are reinforced are more likely to occur again, and behaviors that are punished are less likely to occur again.
who developed operant conditioning?
B. F. Skinne
Cognitive psychology
the study of how people think, learn, and remember. Concerned with mental functions such as intelligence, thinking, language, memory, and decision making. The psychology of thinking
Who Studied cognitive development in children and adolescents.?
Jean Piaget
Social psychology
The study of how people are influenced by their interactions with others. focuses on the power of situation and on the way people are shaped through their interactions with others.
Biology Is Increasingly Important
The last three decades have seen tremendous growth in our understanding of the biological bases of mental activities

For the first time in the history of the discipline, the full power of biology is being used to explain psychological phenomena

Improvemments in technology, like MRI scans, have increased our understanding of how the brain functions.

The ability of the brain to change in response to experience
The mind adapts to ______?
cultural influences
Neuroscience/biological psychologists
Interested in examining how biological systems give rise to mental activity and behavior
Cognitive psychologists
Study processes such as thinking, perceiving, problem solving, decision making, using language, and learning
Experimental psychologists
Study basic psychological processes such as sensation and perception, movement, and learning, through the use of research and experimental design.
Developmental psychologists
Study how people change across the life span, from infancy through old age
Personality psychologists
Seek to understand enduring characteristics that people display over time and across circumstances
Social psychologists
Focus on how people are affected by the presence of others and how they form impressions of others
Cultural psychologists
Seek to understand how people are influenced by the societal rules that dictate behavior in the cultures in which they are raised
Clinical psychologists
Interested in the factors that cause psychological disorders and the methods best used to treat them
Counseling psychologists
Have overlap with clinical psychologists
School psychologists
Work in educational settings
Industrial and organizational psychologists
Concerned with various factors in industry and the workplace
Forensic psychologists
Work in legal settings
Evolutionary psychologists
Concerned with the evolutionary origins of behaviors and mental processes
Categories: General Psychology