Panola General Psychology; chapter one

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Psychology’s intellectual parents are the disciplines of
philosophy and physiology.
Wundt defined psychology as
the scientific study of behavior.
The school of psychology that focused on identifying and examining the fundamental components of conscious experience, such as sensations, feelings, and images, was
structuralism.
In an attempt to learn something about his conscious experience, William looked at an abstract painting and wrote down all of his impressions as they came to him. This technique is called
introspection.
Dr. Smythe believes that in order to fully understand complex processes, such as taste, it is necessary to understand the purpose that taste plays in human adaptation, not the elementary components that combine to produce taste sensations. Dr. Smythe’s views are MOST consistent with
the functionalist approach to psychology.
The term used by William James to describe a continuous flow of thoughts was
stream of consciousness.
The first woman to serve as president of the American Psychological Association was
Mary Calkins.
Functionalism was founded by
William James.
The notion that unconscious motivations can influence our overt behavior is MOST consistent with the views of
Sigmund Freud.
Sigmund Freud developed an innovative procedure for treating people with psychological problems, which he called
psychoanalysis.
Freud concluded that psychological disturbances are largely caused by
personal conflicts existing at an unconscious level
Psychoanalytic theory attempts to explain personality, motivation, and mental disorders by
focusing on unconscious determinants of behavior.
The psychologist who proposed that the study of consciousness should be replaced by the study of behavior was
John B. Watson.
Strict behaviorists would be MOST sympathetic to which one of the following statements?
Human behavior is primarily caused by environmental factors.
Alison believes that individuals learn to be either aggressive or nonaggressive as a result of the experiences they have. Alison’s views are MOST consistent with the
behaviorist view of psychology.
Christine is a psychologist who conducts research on the effects of reward on maze learning in rats. Christine would MOST likely be considered a
behaviorist.
The fact that behaviors can be observed and thoughts and feelings cannot is the basis of
behaviorism.
The notion that all behavior is fully governed by external stimuli is MOST consistent with
behaviorism.
The psychologist who took the position that organisms tend to repeat responses that lead to positive outcomes and tend not to repeat responses that lead to neutral or negative outcomes was
B.F. Skinner.
Janet trained her dog to sit on command by following this behavior with a reward of a dog biscuit and praise. Janet used the principles of
behaviorism.
Which of the following psychologists would have been MOST likely to assert that “free will is an illusion”?
B.F. Skinner
Which of the following groups of psychologists would be MOST likely to focus on individual uniqueness, freedom, and potential for growth as a person?
Humanists
The theoretical viewpoint that is MOST closely associated with Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow is
humanism.
Humanists believe that people’s behavior is governed by
their self-concepts.
Imagine that the editor of your local newspaper writes a column supporting a reduction in government intervention with a transfer of more rights to individual citizens. The editor bases this argument on the assumption that people are rational beings who will fulfill their maximum potential as long as others do not infringe on their basic human needs. This editor’s views reflect those seen in
the humanistic perspective.
A clinical psychologist would probably be MOST interested in
figuring out the most effective ways of treating anxiety.
The major event that influenced the development of psychology as a profession was
World War II.
The term that refers to the mental processes involved in acquiring knowledge is
cognition.
The approach that contends psychology must study internal mental events in order to fully understand behavior is
cognitive psychology.
Annabel wants to investigate differences in the way language is processed by the brain hemispheres in individuals from different cultures. If Annabel could work with a psychologist who has made a significant contribution in this area of research, she would MOST likely choose to work with
Roger Sperry.
The cognitive perspective contends that to fully understand human behavior, psychologists need to focus attention on
internal mental events.
Professor Vasquez believes that nearly all psychological disorders can ultimately be traced to abnormalities in brain chemistry. Professor Vasquez’s beliefs are MOST consistent with the
biological perspective.
The approach that examines behavioral processes in terms of their adaptive value for a species over the course of many generations is
evolutionary psychology.
The basic premise of evolutionary psychology is that natural selection favors behaviors that enhance organisms’ success in
passing on their genes to the next generation.
The individual MOST closely associated with the recent development of positive psychology is
Martin Seligman.
The viewpoint in psychology that uses theory and research to understand the adaptive, creative, and fulfilling aspects of human existence is known as
positive psychology.
Which of the following is NOT included in the text’s definition of psychology?
Psychology studies primarily the unconscious mind
If you were having problems with severe depression, the type of psychologist that would be the greatest help to you would be
a clinical psychologist.
A psychologist who is interested in the psychological effect of aging would MOST likely specialize in
developmental psychology.
A psychologist who studies information processing and decision-making would probably be considered a
cognitive psychologist.
Dr. Somers studies psychological topics such as attitude formation and change and how groups influence people’s behavior. Which of the following BEST categorizes Dr. Somers’ research specialization?
Social psychology
Which of the following areas of research in psychology is concerned with assessing individual differences, developing tests, and developing new statistical techniques?
psychometrics
The most widely practiced professional specialty in psychology is
clinical psychology.
Which of the following is a medical doctor who specializes in diagnosing and treating mental disorders?
a psychiatrist
Empiricism means that knowledge should be acquired through
direct observation.
A system of interrelated ideas used to explain a set of observations is called
a theory.
One psychologist explains a phobia in terms of learning principles whereas another looks to the unconscious for an explanation. Given this scenario, which of the following conclusions is MOST accurate?
The two psychologists are using different theoretical perspectives.
The civil rights movement and the women’s movement raised concerns about whether basic psychological principles could be applied to groups other than white males. Consequently, psychologists began to select samples of subjects that were more diverse for research studies. This change in practice illustrates the idea that
science evolves in a sociohistorical context.
A scientist uses ____ to explain a set of observations.
a theory
the text’s unifying theme that “psychology is theoretically diverse” implies that
there are often several ways to interpret a set of observations.
Widely shared customs, beliefs, values, and norms refer to which of the following?
culture
Dr. Escher believes that individuals may inherit a predisposition for some psychological disorders, but that the disorders will not actually develop unless there is some stressful event that acts as a trigger. Dr. Escher’s views reflect the underlying theme that
genetic factors and experience interact to shape behavior.
The text’s unifying theme that “heredity and environment jointly influence behavior” is often referred to as describing the
nature versus nurture issue.
Which of the following is NOT listed in the textbook as an effective study technique?
Concentrate your study time immediately before an exam.
The idea that you should reward yourself for achieving study goals is based on the concept of
behavior modification.
Categories: General Psychology