Holt Mcdougal Biology chapter 6 vocab

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Somatic cells
all the cells of your body except your sex cells
reproductive cells, have only half the number of chromosomes as body cells. Haploid
Homologous Chromosomes
chromosomes that have the same sequence of genes, that have the same structured, and that pair during meisosis
chromosomes that are not directly involved in determining the sex of an individual
Sex Chromosomes
one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in the human, contains genes that will determine the sex of the individual, X and Y
Sexual reproduction
reproduction involving the union or fusion of a male and a female gamete
fusion of male and female gametes
an organism or cell having two sets of chromosomes or twice the haploid number
an organism or cell having only one complete set of chromosomes, half of a diploid
Form of nuclear division that divides a diploid cells into haploid cells. Essential for sexual reproduction.
production of gametes through meiosis and other changes
the male gamete
the female gamete
Polar Bodies
Byproduct of meiosis, cells with little more than DNA that are eventually broken down.
distinguishing characteristics that are inherited
The scientific study of biological inheritance patterns and variation in organisms
the offspring of many generations that have the same traits
the mating of two organisms
Law of segregation
Mendel’s first law
-Organisms inherit two copies of each gene, one from each parent
-Organisms donate only one copy of each gene in their gametes. Thus, the two copies of each gene segregate, or separate, during gamete formation.
a piece of DNA that provides a set of instructions to a cell to make a certain protein.
Any of the alternative forms of a gene that may occur at a specific locus
having identical alleles at a specific locus
having dissimilar alleles at a specific locus
all of an organism’s genetic material
genetic makeup of of a specific set of genes
the physical characteristics, or traits, of an individual organism
Dominant Allele
the allele that is expressed when two different alleles or two dominant alleles are present
Recessive Allele
the allele that is expressed only when two copies are present
Punnett Square
a chart that shows all the possible genotypes that can result from a genetic cross
Monohybrid Crosses
Crosses that examine the inheritance of only one specific trait
a cross between an organism with an unknown genotype and an organism with the recessive phenotype
Dihybrid Crosses
crosses that examine the inheritance of two different traits
Law of Independent Assortment
states that allele pairs separate independently of each other during gamete formation, or meiosis.
the likelihood that a particular event will happen
Crossing Over
the exchange of chromosome segments between homologous chromosomes during the prophase I and meiosis I
Genetic Linkage
genes located close together tend to be inherited together
Categories: Vocabulary