World Religions Vocab- Judaism, Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, And Buddhism

Judaism
A religion practiced by about 14 million people worldwide. The first major monotheistic religion
Monotheism
The belief in one God
Ten Commandments
According to Jewish belief, God’s laws that were given to Moses, and which provide Jews with guidelines for living
Anti-Semitism
Discrimination most commonly against Jewish people
Torah
Sacred writings of the Jewish religion; First four books of the Old Testament
Talmud
Collection of interpretations of the Torah
Synagogue
Also known as temple or shul, a Jewish place of worship
Sabbath
Day of rest and worship observed by Jews from Friday evening to Saturday evening
Cantor
The person who lead songs and prayers at Jewish worship services
Rabbi
Jewish religious leader; means teacher
Kosher
Following special dietary laws taken from Hebrew scripture
Abraham
Father of Judaism
Christianity
A religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus. This religion is practiced by about 2 billion people worldwide
Jesus
According to Christians, the son of God whose life and teachings provide the basis for the Christian religion; Christians believe that he died on the cross to save mankind’s sins; He’s also known as Savior and or Messiah
Disciples
Devoted followers
Resurrection
The event where Christians believe Jesus rose from the dead
Protestant Reformation
A religious revolution during the 16th century that resulted in the founding of Protestantism, a major branch of Christianity
Trinity
Christian belief that one God is three persons-the Father, Son and Holy Spirit
Bible
Christian sacred writings
Sacraments
Special ceremonies performed by some Christians; Baptism is considered one of these
Islam
This religion is practiced by more than 1 billion people worldwide; It comes from the Arabic word for submission; fastest-growing religion
Muslim
Follower of Islam
Allah
“God” in Arabic
Muhammad
According to Muslims, a prophet who received the word of God
Hijrah
Mohammed’s journey from Mecca to Medina in 622, which marks the beginning of the Islamic calendar
Holy cities
Mecca, Medina, and Jerusalem
Mosque
Also known as a masjid, a Muslim place of worship
Ka’bah
A shrine in Mecca, and one of the holiest places according to the Islamic faith
Qur’an (Koran)
The holy writings of Islam; received by the last prophet, Mohammad
Shahada
A statement, recited by Muslims, that states the fundamental belief of Islam
Salah
Daily prayers of Muslims, said five times per day
Zakah
Charity performed by Muslims
Sawm
Fasting; Muslims fast during the month of Ramadan
Hajj
A journey or pilgrimage to Mecca
5 Pillars of Islam
Shahada, salah, zakah, sawm, and hajj
Hinduism
A family of religious traditions practiced by about 900 million people worldwide (most live in India)
Caste System
A division of social class in India based on ancient Hindu teachings. Now totally illegal, but very present in India
Brahman
The supreme essence or God of Hinduism. Hindus think of him in many different forms
Hindu gods
Brahman, Vishnu, Shiva, Ganesh…
Samsara
The Hindu belief in a cycle of life, death, and rebirth
Reincarnation
The Hindu belief in rebirth after death
Karma
The Hindu belief that a person’s actions affect what happens to him or her
Moksha
The Hindu belief in freedom from samsara; can be reached through yoga
Temple
Also known as a mandir, a Hindu place of worship
Puja
Hindu and Buddhist prayer rituals
Shrine
Area of worship in a Hindu home
Vedas
Ancient Hindu sacred writings
Dharma
Living the right way
Upanishads
More recent than the Vedas; sacred Hindu writings
Mahatma Gandhi
Because of his work for the untouchables, the caste system was outlawed; he was born into the second highest caste (Kshatriyas); demanded Indian independence from Great Britain
Buddhism
A religion based on the life and teachings of Siddhartha Gautama, the Buddha; this religion is practiced by more than 500 million Buddhists worldwide; a growing religion; no deity or god
The Buddha
A title given to Siddhartha Gautama, which means “enlightened one”
Great Enlightenment
The moment at which Buddhists believe the Buddha gained wisdom and became free from life’s suffering
Four Noble Truths
Important teachings of the Buddha, which include ideas about suffering, its causes, and how to end it
Noble Eightfold Path
Important teachings of the Buddha, which tells his followers how to end suffering
Dharma
The truth or law of Buddhism
Reincarnation
The Buddhist belief in rebirth after death
Karma
The Buddhist belief that a person’s actions affect what happens to him or her
Nirvana
The Buddhist belief in the state of being where there is no more suffering and no more rebirth; in order to reach this, you have to follow the 4 noble truths
Sangha
A community of Buddhists, including monks and nuns
Sutras
Buddhist sacred writings
Abraham
Important Jewish, Christian, and Islamic prophet
Jewish Holy Days
Yom Kippur and Rosh Hashanah
Christian Holy Days
Christmas and Easter
Islamic Holy Days
Month of Ramadan and Eid al-Fitr
Ganges River
Most sacred river to Hindus; they believe that bathing in the river washes away your sins
Hindu Festivals
Diwali and Holi
Yoga
A type of mental and physical exercise that helps you reach moksha
The Middle Path
Moderation in all things
Tripitaka
Another name for sutras
Buddhists
These people respect all life and encourage nonviolence and kindness
Buddhist temples
Pagodas and stupas
Dalai Lama
Leads Tibetan Buddhists (was government and spiritual leader); although he is in exile in northern India, he is still considered by Tibetans their spiritual leader; his real name is Tenzin Gyatso; he is 78 years old
Categories: Vocabulary